Fascism is a form of counter-revolutionary politics that first arose in the early part of the twentieth-century in Europe. It was a response to the rapid social upheaval, the devastation of World War I, and the Bolshevik Revolution. Fascism is a philosophy or a system of government the advocates or exercises a dictatorship of the extreme right, typically through the merging of state and business leadership, together with an ideology of aggressive nationalism. Celebrating the nation or the race as an organic community surpassing all other loyalties. This right-wing philosophy will even advocate violent action to maintain this loyalty which is held in such high regards.
Fascism approaches politics in two central areas, populist and elitist. Populist in that it seeks to activate “the people” as a whole against perceived oppressors or enemies and to create a nation of unity. The elitist approach treats as putting the peoples will on one select group, or most often one supreme leader called El Duce, from whom all power proceeds downward. The two most recognized names that go along with Fascism is Italys Benito Mussolini and Germanys Adolf Hitler. The philosophy of Fascism can be traced to the philosophers who argue that the will is prior to and superior to the intellect or reason.
George Sorel, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Georg Hegal are main philosophers whos beliefs and ideologies greatly influenced the shaping of Fascist theory. Sorel (1847-1922) was a French social philosopher who had a major influence on Mussolini. Sorel believed that societies naturally became decadent and disorganized. This decay could only be slowed by the leadership of idealists who were willing to use violence to obtain power. Nietzsche (1844-1900) theorized that there were two moral codes: the ruling class ( master morality) and the oppressed class (slave morality). Nietzsche believed the ancient empires were developed from the master majority and the religious ideas and views grew out the slave majority.
The idea of the “overman” or superman which symbolized man at his most creative and highest intellectual capacity was brought about by Nietzsche as well. Hegal believed people should sacrifice for the community. He thought war was also necessary to unify the state, with peace bring nothing but a weak society. Hegal also sustained that laws should be made by the corporate organization of the state. Fascism values human nature in a group for the benefit of the community.
The group as a whole is called the human will, which is ruled by a select group or one leader, with the power being passed down from top to bottom. Fascism seeks to organize an organization led mass movement in an effort to capture the state power. When the power is in the firm grip of the ruler, or IL Duce, the government will be used to control the population and everything in it so the community will be benefited. Fascisms ideal government would be fashioned around the good of the community or nation. Everyone would work for the benefit of the nation and that is all.
Regularly this would take place with the merging of the state and business leadership, with concern only of the nation. In this the nation will also take care of its members if the need should arise. This could be money ,shelter, food, or any other need that might come about. The ideology of Fascism has been identified with totalitarianism, state terror, fanaticism, arranged violence, and blind obedience. Adolf Hitler established his own personal ideology, Mein Kampf, which means My Struggle.
The book was written while Hitler was in prison and not yet in power. Mussolini fashioned his ideology after he took control of Italy. Despite their two different angles on the use of Fascism Hitler and Mussolini both worked similarly on how they established their principles in the same basic manner. Their principles came from basic responses to various issues the leaders faced. Fascism is an authoritarian political movement that developed in Italy and other European countries after 1919 as a reaction against the profound political and social changes brought about from inflation, and declining social, economic, and political conditions.
Italy, which was ready for a new political aspect, was the birthplace of fascist ideology. Benito Mussolini was the man who brought this ideology to Italy. Mussolini had been looking for the perfect opportunity to take complete control of the country and now was the time to do so. Mussolini said “Fascism, which was not afraid to call itself reactionarydoes not hesitate to call itself illiberal and anti-liberal” (Nazi Fascism and the Modern Totalitarian State) this statement can be easily recognized in the steps that Mussolini took to gain control of Italy. In 1919 Mussolini and his followers, mostly war veterans, were organized along paramilitary lines and wore black shirts as uniforms.
After defeats at the polls Mussolini used his new financial backing friends to clothe a gang of thugs who would attack other street gangs supporting other ideologies that Mussolini disliked. These black shirts also vandalized, terrorized, bullied, and on occasion took control of self-governing governments by force. Paralyzed by these violent occurrences, the government did little to combat the fascists. Mussolini furthered his popularity by supporting eight hour days, elimination of class privileges, universal suffrage, and tax advantages. Adolf Hitlers Nazi (National Socialist German Workers Party) party is the most recognized example of fascism.
Nazism is the ideology and policies of Hitler and his party from 1921 to 1945. Nazism also stressed the superiority of the Aryan race, calling for the unification of all German-speaking peoples into one single empire. Unlike fascism, the state was second in importance, behind only racial purity for the nation. Hitler used his book Mein Kampf to establish a plan of action for creating this racially pure state. In January of 1933 Hitler was named Chancellor of Germany by Hindenburg. By the end of the year Hitler had concentrated his power as a fascist dictator and began a campaign for a racially pure nation that eventually led to the Holocaust.
In order for Hitler to maintain his ability to control the German people he had to organize several militia groups. Hitler even wrote down important points of the Nazi party that had to be followed. These Twenty Five points of Hitlers party were enforced by these militia groups. A few of the points made by Hitler are as follows: immigration of non-Germans must be prevented, no individual shall do any work that would I any way hurt the interest of the community for the benefit of all, a creation of a national (folk) army, all editors and their assistants on newspapers published in German must be a citizen, and all material to be published must go through the government for approval. To keep control of the population and maintain the law, Hitler setup he set up militia groups to see that everything was in …