History Cheat Note 1. Justinians court was much like the Easterns rule; the subjects were spaced from the rulers in space, dress and obedience. The laws were in Latin, even though the common language was Greek. 2. ? 622- Heraclius opened a successful attack on the Persians. ? 628- At Ctesiphon a peace treat was signed in favor of Heraclius ? 632- Muhammads followers conquered and ran the Empire. ? 717-718- Leo III beat back Muslim attack on Constantinople.
3. Iconoclastic policy under Leo III forbid showing respect to holy images within churches and it also allowed the destruction of then images. This had a disastrous effect but brought the Western and Eastern churches together. 4. The issues that indicate how the Byzantium Emperor was associated with the church while also acting as the secular head of the state has to do with his responsibilities in protecting and aiding in the perseverance of his empire.
This is what the people of the empire thought God wanted, so by doing his job emperor was thought as a holy figure, which placed him as the head of the churches with some restrictions. 5. The Byzantium Empire bureaucracy differed from the Roman Empire in that the Roman Empire did not have a fiscal system, a state postal service or a secret police. They also collected money from the 10 percent tariff on trade and from the monopolies, while the Roman Empire did not have a budget. The Byzantium bureaucracy had skilled diplomats, which kept the enemies divided and used bribes, tributes and subsides, the Roman Empire used a basic administration without a professional civil service. The Eubuchs were used for important positions in the government in the Byzantium Empire, while queens and woman of the court preformed that job in the Roman Empire.
6. The Byzantine bureaucracy was run mostly by the emperor, who also controlled justice, with the aid of a civil service. The government had a fiscal system, a state postal service and a secrete army. It collected a 10 percent tax from the trade and more money from state monopolies. The Eunuchs filled the most important positions in the government. 7.
Roman Catholic Greek Orthodox Control of the Churches Clergy Emperor Filioque dispute Holy spirit proceeds from the Father and from the Son Holy spirit proceeds only from the father Rules for churches No divorce and no married priests Divorce because of adultery and married priests Languages Latin and no vernacular languages Allowed vernacular languages (Greek, Coptic..) Centralization Centralized control over Christianity under the papacy Relied on secular authority for the individual churches Conversion of Slavs Used force to gain more land and to convert people Converted Slavs and Serbs into Christianity 8. As a result of Cyrillic and Methodius work, today the Serbs and Slavs are Christians. 9. The Byzantium society was divided into two parts, the urban and rural. In the urban parts there were paved and illuminated streets and magnificent churches and palaces.
The rich lived along excellent surroundings in huge palaces and where divided from the poor, who lived in sprawling slums with a criminal environment. The rural society consisted of soldier/sailor farmers and laborers. The farmers made decisions about uncultivated or common land, collected taxes, elected judges and other officials needed for the government. 10. Guilds were creates to ensure the products had good quality.
These guilds helped make a state monopoly and the products produced where sent all over the world giving the empire more money. 11. The womens role in the Byzantium Empire where centered on the home with limitations in contacting with men outside the family. The Byzantine women wore veils over their heads, but not their faces. The nuns where not allowed to perform charity work or run schools.
The only women who had power were those that were at the imperial and aristocratic level. Poor women had to aid in family agriculture, become street vendors, enter the theater or become prostitutes. The male relatives protected the women and children, but the women did have protection for their goods, money and land. In the East women were discouraged by the churches to remarry. There were three types of institutions of higher learning: a palace school for the laymen, trained civil servants in language, law and rhetoric; patriarchal schools instructed priests in rhetoric and theology; and monastic schools taught young monks the mystical writings of the past.
With the decrease of public grammar schools in the sixth and seventh centuries, the poor depended on their guild for their education. The boys were learned Greek from a Psalter instead of from classical authors. After the sixth century scholars used Greek instead of Latin when composing school manuals, histories, saints lives, biblical commentaries and encyclopedias of ancient science and lore. The Byzantine scholars concentrated on Plato and religious writers instead of Aristotle. Their greatest accomplishment was the preservation of the classical Greek literature.
After the rejection of iconoclasm in the middle of the ninth century, art and architecture flourished again. The artists started decorating many churches in the Empire. Mosaics at that time showed the emperor as grand and Christ was never shown as suffering because of the close relationship between him and the emperor. The people were in a debate about the nature of Christ and the use of icons. With the evolvement of the laity there was a possibility that it would lead to riots. There was entertainment in the Roman coliseums and there was chariot racing, the most popular, animal shows and theatre.
The fans divided themselves into two groups, the “Blues” and “Greens”. 12. When the theme system collapsed the military manpower was reduced, which led to a rural aristocracy of landlords. This weakened the strength of the central government. The emperors had to seek help from Constantinople for naval power, while also under pressure for ground troops.
13. The ending of the Byzantine Empire as a great power began with the weakness in their troops; the Byzantine Empire had little defense against the Seljuks. The Seljuks shattered the Byzantine troops and took emperor Ramaus in 1071. The weakening of the defense brought down Asia Minor to the Seljuks. The loss of Asia Minor forced the Byzantine Empire to appeal to the west for help, showing that the empire had lost its great power in the East. 14. Schism- a formal breach of union within a Christian church.
15. The cause of the schism was due to competition in the southern churches, different languages, and other rivalries, disputes and snobbery. 16. Muhammad began establishing the Islamic faith by preaching his religion in Mecca. After he was rejected he went to Yathrib, where he gained much support and became the political leader and governor. With this he had a military base which he used in war to spread his beliefs to Mecca in 624.
17. Contributions Christianity Concepts of Last Judgment, personal salvation, heaven and hell, charity to the poor and weak and a Universal religion Judaism Prophecy Arab paganism Veneration of Kaaba and the requirement of pilgrimage to the sacred city Zoroastrianism Figures of Satin and evil demons. 18. I dont go to a church, temple or mosque and I do not know rabbi or a minister or anything else. 19.
The beliefs of the religion Islam are that the prophet is Allah and that the collection of prophecies is known as the Koran. The Koran was written in Arabic and Allah could only be addressed in Arabic. Islam was seen as the final revelation, completing the message of God. The Arabs were given the mission of carrying the final message. 20.
The expansion of Islam was strengthened since the Arabs will familiar with camels, which enabled them to move much more easily in the desert than the Byzantines and the Persians, who had horses. With this they were able to retreat easily whenever needed. The Byzantines and the Persians were tired from their wars, which made them easier to conquer. There were parts in both Byzantine and Persia that were Semitic and their religion were closely related to those of the Arabs, making it easier for them to join. The warriors were inspired by the Prophets promise of vast rewards to those who died and booty to those who won.
Since the Arabs did not have enough skilled people they placed the newly conquered people in the government. After Muhammads death his successors conquered Byzantine, Syria, Persia and Egypt by the 640s. 21. The Umayyads were the first line of hereditary rulers of the Arab Empire. 22. Sunnas- traditions that were writings that purported to describe how the first companions of Muhammad or how Muhammad himself dealt with various problems.
Sunnites- people who believed the Sunnas. Shiites- people who apposed the Sunnites. 23. The Islamic community became disunited in 655 with the birth of Ali, Muhammads son in law. The Shiites believed that he should rule the Islamic community and thought of the Umayyads as usurpers.
The Shiites started antagonisms, protests, and revolts. Then, one of Muhammads uncle revolted against the Umayyads and killed all of the except for one, Abdurrahman. Abdurrahman fled to Spain and set up a dependent caliphate. Others were formed at Morocco in 788, Tunisia in 800, eastern Persia in 820 and Egypt in 868. 24.
The unifying factor across all of the Islamic lands was Arabic, the language of the Koran. This unified literature, learning, and commerce. 25. Islam embraced numerous economic systems. The Bedouins in the Arabian peninsula, the Berbers in North Africa and the Turkish people of Eurasia continued to have pastoral economy.
The majority of people living in Egypt, Persia, Sicily and Spain lived by settling agriculture. The inhabitants of cities relied on commerce. Islam improved communications with a universal language and with a pilgrimage in Mecca. The agriculture expanded with new plants form Asia and with some advanced ways of agriculture. The steel, leather, cotton, linen and silk were traded to India and Indonesia for spices. The Arabs improved the technology that they borrowed form China and India.
They also got the formula for the Greek fire and improved other weapons and fortress buildings. They introduced the windmill, the spinning w …