.. sence, they are not to have bail unreasonably high, fines unreasonably high, or tortured. Many people say that the death penalty is cruel and unusual punishment, but they are wrong. Amendment 13 Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for a crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
This amendment totally abolishes any slavery within the legal jurisdiction of the United States. Amendment 19 The right of the citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. This amendment, made in 1920, gives women the right to vote. Previously, women had almost no rights, and voting was a privilege that they were not allowed to have.
Amendment 21 The Eighteenth Article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed. The transportation or importation into any state, territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited. This amendment repealed, or took back the eighteenth amendment which made alcohol illegal. Amendment 22 No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of President more than once. This amendment makes it so that a president can only serve for two terms in his lifetime.
This keeps the United States from ever having a dictatorship. Amendment 26 The right of citizens of the United States, who are 18 years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of age. The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. This amendment, made in 1971, lowers the voting age from 21 to 18. The Presidents of the United States President Election Years in Political Party Home State Year Office George Washington 1788 1789-1793 None Virginia George Washington 1792 1793-1797 None Virginia John Adams 1796 1797-1801 Federalist Massachusetts Thomas Jefferson 1800 1801-1805 Republican Virginia Thomas Jefferson 1804 1805-1809 Republican Virginia James Madison 1808 1809-1813 Republican Virginia James Madison 1812 1813-1817 Republican Virginia James Monroe 1816 1817-1821 Republican Virginia James Monroe 1820 1821-1825 Republican Virginia John Quincy Adams 1824 1825-1829 Republican Massachusetts Andrew Jackson 1828 1829-1833 Democrat Tennessee Andrew Jackson 1832 1833-1837 Democrat Tennessee Martin Van Buren 1836 1837-1841 Democrat New York William H.
Harrison 1840 1841 Whig Ohio John Tyler 1841-1845 Whig Virginia James K. Polk 1844 1845-1849 Democrat Tennessee Zachary Taylor 1848 1849-1850 Whig Louisiana Millard Fillmore 1850-1853 Whig New York Franklin Pierce 1852 1853-1857 Democrat New Hampshire James Buchanan 1856 1857-1861 Democrat Pennsylvania Abraham Lincoln 1860 1861-1865 Republican Illinois Abraham Lincoln 1864 1865 Republican Illinois Andrew Johnson 1865-1869 Republican Tennessee Ulysses S. Grant 1868 1869-1873 Republican Illinois Ulysses S. Grant 1872 1873-1877 Republican Illinois Rutherford B. Hayes 1876 1877-1881 Republican Ohio James A. Garfield 1880 1881 Republican Ohio Chester A. Arthur 1881-1885 Republican New York Grover Cleveland 1884 1885-1889 Democrat New York Benjamin Harrison 1888 1889-1893 Republican Indiana Grover Cleveland 1892 1893-1897 Democrat New York William McKinley 1896 1897-1901 Republican Ohio William McKinley 1900 1901 Republican Ohio Theodore Roosevelt 1901-1905 Republican New York Theodore Roosevelt 1904 1905-1909 Republican New York William H. Taft 1908 1909-1913 Republican Ohio Woodrow Wilson 1912 1913-1917 Democrat New Jersey Woodrow Wilson 1916 1917-1921 Democrat New Jersey Warren G.
Harding 1920 1921-1923 Republican Ohio Calvin Coolidge 1923-1924 Republican Massachusetts Calvin Coolidge 1924 1925-1929 Republican Massachusetts Herbert Hoover 1928 1929-1933 Republican California Franklin D. Roosevelt 1932 1933-1937 Democrat New York Franklin D. Roosevelt 1936 1937-1941 Democrat New York Franklin D. Roosevelt 1940 1941-1945 Democrat New York Franklin D. Roosevelt 1944 1945 Democrat New York Harry S.
Truman 1945-1949 Democrat Missouri Harry S. Truman 1948 1949-1953 Democrat Missouri Dwight D. Eisenhower 1952 1953-1957 Republican Pennsylvania Dwight D. Eisenhower 1956 1957-1961 Republican Pennsylvania John F. Kennedy 1960 1961-1963 Democrat Massachusetts Lyndon B. Johnson 1963-1965 Democrat Texas Lyndon B.
Johnson 1964 1965-1969 Democrat Texas Richard M. Nixon 1968 1969-1973 Republican California Richard M. Nixon 1972 1973-1974 Republican California Gerald R. Ford 1974-1977 Republican Michigan Jimmy Carter 1976 1977-1981 Democrat Georgia Ronald Reagan 1980 1981-1985 Republican California Ronald Reagan 1984 1985-1989 Republican California George Bush 1988 1989-1993 Republican Texas Bill Clinton 1992 1993- Democrat Arkansas The Executive Branch The executive branch of the government is led by the president, currently Bill Clinton. His main duties are to: A) Enforce laws.
It is the in the oath of office of the president to uphold the laws and constitution of the United States. B) Act as Commander in chief of the armed forces. The president has this title because he is the head honcho in the military. The buck stops there. The president can ask congress for the right to go to war as did Franklin Delano Roosevelt after the bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.
Congress voted yes and the United States entered WWII. C) Appoint key officials in the government. Among the many that the president appoints are Supreme Court Justices, the surgeon general, and the attorney general. D) Recommend laws to congress. The president can introduce a bill to congress.
The Senate and the House will vote on the bill. If both approve it, it goes back to the president for him to sign. Once he has signed it, it is a law. Either part of Congress may introduce a bill as well. If it passes through both the House and the Senate, it goes to the president for him to sign. If he disagrees with the bill, he may choose to veto it. Veto is a combination of the words vote no.
When the president vetoes a bill, it goes back to Congress for them to review it. In order to check the presidents power and pass the bill into law, there must be a two-thirds majority when the ballots are cast. The president also has the power to grant a reprieve or pardon to any convicted criminal or even someone who has not been charged yet. This is illustrated by Gerald Fords pardon of Richard Nixon before he was to be charged for any involvement of his in the Watergate scandal. The pardon was granted to keep the United States from being embarrassed at having one of their presidents on trial.
On the upside, Nixon was respected globally for his efforts to open and establish relations with China. The president of the United states has a four year term. He may serve up to two terms in his lifetime. The salary for the president is $200,000 per year. The president must also be a natural born citizen and must have lived in the United States for 14 years before running.
Jack Metcalf Jack Metcalf, a Washington State senator, attended the University of Washington between 1944 and 1948. He earned a Bachelor of Arts degree from Pacific Lutheran University in 1951 and then later in 1965-66 went back to the University of Washington. He also patriotically served his country in the armed forces between 1946 and 1947. Metcalf, a teacher and bed & breakfast owner, has a wife, Norma, and four children. Metcalf has a colorful background as a good Republican public servant.
His political career began in 1958 when he received the Republican nomination for one of the Washington House of Representatives positions. Between the years of 1961 and 1965, Jack Metcalf served his state in the Washington House of Representatives. In 1964, however, he was defeated for re-election. Never a quitter, though, Metcalf ran for a Washington State senator position, and won. He served as a senator between 1967 and 1975. In 1968 and 74, Metcalf, now a seasoned politician, received the Republican nomination for the Senate. He served in the Washington Senate from 1981 to 1993. He was the Republican nominee for the United States House of Representatives in 1992.
At the age of 67, he took his House of Representatives oath, and was the oldest member of the Class of 94. In his 1992 campaign for the Congressional seat against Democratic challenger Al Swift, he promised to limit his terms to six years in Congress. He has described himself as a guy willing to take some kamikaze runs. Metcalf has stated a call for the restoration of the gold standard, and criticizes the Federal Reserve System. In 1994, it did not look like Metcalf was indeed going to again win the Republican nomination.
He had to survive direct attacks from Republican rival Senator Tom Erwin in the primaries. He won the nomination, however, but it looked bleak for Metcalf against State Senator Harriet Spanel. However, most of her financial backing came from unions, environmentalists, and womens groups. 1994 was the wrong year to be a liberal. Although Spanel had the better funding, she was hurt by her support of the assault weapons ban and the Brady Bill.
Metcalf opposed both. Another thing that helped Metcalf was his total opposition to abortion, which made him popular among conservatives. Spanel won support from San Juan County, but Metcalf won the rest of the counties in the district. Review There are three branches of the United States Government. The legislative, judicial, and the executive. Ideally, no one is more powerful than the other two.
They are all equal. They all have certain powers as well as certain checks on powers. Congress is the main body of the legislative branch, and is composed of two parts: the Senate and the House of Representatives. The judicial branch consists of all of the courts in the United States, but is headed by the Supreme Court. The president is the leader of the Executive branch.
In order to become a president, one must be at least 35 years of age and a natural born citizen living in the United States for 14 years. The term of office for a president is 4 years. The term of office for the Unites States House of Representative members is 2 years, while Senators enjoy 6 years in a term. In order to be in the House, you must be at least 25 years of age, for Senators the minimum age is 30. There are 100 members of the Senate, two for every state. The House of Representatives, however, has 435 members, plus one from Washington D.C., but he/she is not allowed to vote.
In order for a bill to become law, it must pass the Senate, House of Representatives, and the President must sign it. If the president vetoes a bill, it is kicked back into Congress, where it may undergo revision, or simply be voted upon again. If Congress votes and both halves get a 2/3 majority, the bill is passed into law without the president being able to do anything about it. Some of the presidents jobs are to be the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces, to enforces laws, and to grant pardons to criminals. Congress sets and collects taxes, has the power to borrow money, declares war, provides for an army and a navy, creates lesser courts, and coins money. Bibliography Blough, Glen O.
The Young Peoples Book of Science. United States of America, McGraw-Hill, 1968, pp. 1-436. Claiborne, Robert. Word Mysteries & Histories.
Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1986. pp. 2-308. Congress. The New American Desk Encyclopedia. Volume 1, page 302. United States of America, Penguin Books Incorporated, 1989.
Markoff, John. Cyberpunk. New York, Simon & Schuster, 1991, pp. 1-366 Websters New World Dictionary Second College Edition, United States of America, The World Publishing Company, 1970. pp. 156, 224, 332, 627, 633. Wood, Leonard C.
America, its People and its Values. United States of America, Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1979.